AES是一套對稱密鑰的密碼術,目前已廣泛使用,用於替代已經不夠安全的DES算法。所謂對稱密鑰,就是說加密和解密用的是同一個密鑰,消息的發送方和接收方在消息傳遞前需要享有這個密鑰。和非對稱密鑰體系不同,這裡的密鑰是雙方保密的,不會讓任何第三方知道。

對稱密鑰加密法主要基於塊加密,選取固定長度的密鑰,去加密明文中固定長度的塊,生成的密文塊與明文塊長度一樣。顯然密鑰長度十分重要,塊的長度也很重要。如果太短,則很容易枚舉出所有的明文-密文映射;如果太長,性能則會急劇下降。AES中規定塊長度為128 bit,而密鑰長度可以選擇128, 192或256 bit 。暴力破解密鑰需要萬億年,這保證了AES的安全性。

AES的算法較為複雜,在此不細加闡述。下面是使用openssl進行AES加密和解密的示例程序:

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/*
* aes.cc
* - Show the usage of AES encryption/decryption
*/
 
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <openssl/aes.h>
 
int main(int argc, char** argv) {
    AES_KEY aes;
    unsigned char key[AES_BLOCK_SIZE];        // AES_BLOCK_SIZE = 16
    unsigned char iv[AES_BLOCK_SIZE];        // init vector
    unsigned char* input_string;
    unsigned char* encrypt_string;
    unsigned char* decrypt_string;
    unsigned int len;        // encrypt length (in multiple of AES_BLOCK_SIZE)
    unsigned int i;
 
    // check usage
    if (argc != 2) {
        fprintf(stderr, "%s <plain text>\n", argv[0]);
        exit(-1);
    }
 
    // set the encryption length
    len = 0;
    if ((strlen(argv[1]) + 1) % AES_BLOCK_SIZE == 0) {
        len = strlen(argv[1]) + 1;
    } else {
        len = ((strlen(argv[1]) + 1) / AES_BLOCK_SIZE + 1) * AES_BLOCK_SIZE;
    }
 
    // set the input string
    input_string = (unsigned char*)calloc(len, sizeof(unsigned char));
    if (input_string == NULL) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Unable to allocate memory for input_string\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
    strncpy((char*)input_string, argv[1], strlen(argv[1]));
 
    // Generate AES 128-bit key
    for (i=0; i<16; ++i) {
        key[i] = 32 + i;
    }
 
    // Set encryption key
    for (i=0; i<AES_BLOCK_SIZE; ++i) {
        iv[i] = 0;
    }
    if (AES_set_encrypt_key(key, 128, &aes) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Unable to set encryption key in AES\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
 
    // alloc encrypt_string
    encrypt_string = (unsigned char*)calloc(len, sizeof(unsigned char));    
    if (encrypt_string == NULL) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Unable to allocate memory for encrypt_string\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
 
    // encrypt (iv will change)
    AES_cbc_encrypt(input_string, encrypt_string, len, &aes, iv, AES_ENCRYPT);
 
    // alloc decrypt_string
    decrypt_string = (unsigned char*)calloc(len, sizeof(unsigned char));
    if (decrypt_string == NULL) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Unable to allocate memory for decrypt_string\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
 
    // Set decryption key
    for (i=0; i<AES_BLOCK_SIZE; ++i) {
        iv[i] = 0;
    }
    if (AES_set_decrypt_key(key, 128, &aes) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Unable to set decryption key in AES\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
 
    // decrypt
    AES_cbc_encrypt(encrypt_string, decrypt_string, len, &aes, iv, 
            AES_DECRYPT);
 
    // print
    printf("input_string = %s\n", input_string);
    printf("encrypted string = ");
    for (i=0; i<len; ++i) {
        printf("%x%x", (encrypt_string[i] >> 4) & 0xf, 
                encrypt_string[i] & 0xf);    
    }
    printf("\n");
    printf("decrypted string = %s\n", decrypt_string);
 
    return 0;
}

編譯Makefile:

CC=g++
CFLAGS=-Wall -g -O2
LIBS=-lcrypto
 
all: aes
 
aes: aes.cc
    $(CC) $(CFLAGS) aes.cc -o [email protected] $(LIBS)
 
clean:
    @rm -f aes